Wednesday, June 11, 2014


        For the past handful of years, through ongoing fire dynamics research, we've been deconstructing the fireground. This Fireground Genome Project has undoubtedly led us to a much better understanding of fire dynamics and the fireground. An untoward effect of this research is that the fire service is seemingly devolving into a bipartisan system. We can all sense the division. A schism has formed and too many firefighters are spewing their polarizing rhetoric and forcing firefighters to choose a side. These self-promoting zealots may get a ton of Facebook likes, but they're missing the big picture...THEM! Call the sides what you will: Inside/Outside, Science/Street, Brains/Balls, SLICE-RS/DICERS, Old-School/New-School, etc., it's evident that many view the fireground as a dichotomy.
        As much as some want them to be, these ideologies are not mutually exclusive. There is no grand unified theory of firefighting. If conditions and resources dictate tactics...then shouldn't there be more than one way to fight fire. The fireground is not black or's made up of infinite shades of gray. If that's the truth, then shouldn't we understand and embrace both sides of the coin? We all claim to have the same agenda - THEM! I'm on their team. If you're going to choose a side, it should be theirs - the unprotected that we've sworn to protect.
"There is never one answer."
- Steve Kerber
        Science doesn't need my's just quantifying the natural world. Neither does aggressive, interior's been around for generations and has saved countless lives. We're all human, I get it; we all have our biases and our blind spots, but we can learn from each other, we just need to listen. Only through critical thinking, honest discussion, and listening with an open mind can we enhance our understanding of our craft. We need to ask questions and seek truth.
"Honest disagreement is often a good sign of progress."
- Mahatma Gandhi
        Although we're better informed, there still seems to be a disconnect when attempting to utilize this information on the fireground. To only have a "Plan A" is setting us up for failure. To only train on one tactic is training to fail. Both of these myopic views will ultimately fail THEM. We understand the fireground better, now we need to understand ourselves better. Take the time to dissect this information and see what works for you - your crew, your department, and your community - and what doesn't. Knowledge and skill are directly proportional to safety...not only for us, but for THEM. There's only one way to to become knowledgeable, skilled, well-rounded firefighters...repeated, generous helpings of sweat.
        Now let's go get sweaty. We owe it to THEM!

Friday, April 25, 2014

Expect Training, Expect Sweat

        This job isn't easy, and there's no secret to being good at it. The recipe has only two ingredients: training and sweat. Over the past generation or so our responsibilities have snowballed to the point where the spectrum of our services is near infinite. We are the ones called when someone is trapped following a traffic accident, when grandma passes out, when there's a mudslide, a chemical spill, ice rescue, etc., etc...and I haven't even mentioned fire yet. Even though our duties have expanded exponentially, our shareholders still expect us to be experts at our job. So doesn't it seem fair to hold each other to the same standards that the public does...or at least strive for expertise? Hell, being halfway decent at any one discipline in this job requires relentless dedication. So then the obvious question: How are we ever going to live up to our shareholders expectations if we aren't training and sweating daily?
"Perfection is not attainable, but if we chase perfection we can catch excellence."
- Vince Lombardi
        Every morning we pull up to the station we should assume we have training. I understand that we all have a lot on our plates, but training is like ice cream - there's always room for more...oh, and it's damn good too. Almost every one of our skills is perishable, so frequency is a necessity. Don't believe me, have your crew go practice one-man ladder throws. I hope it was perfect, although I'm willing to bet that for too many of us there was plenty of room for improvement. If you don't already have time dedicated to training every day, there will undoubtedly be some growing pains at first. Although firefighters, by definition, are amazingly adaptable, and just like getting back into the gym after a long break or waking up early for school after a summer of sleeping in, after a couple weeks, no one will even know the difference. We owe it to our members, and the people in their wallets (or in their phones) to make training a excuses! Now let's go get sweaty.

"Expect fire, expect victims, expect problems."

        The inspiration for this piece came from my favorite fire service mantra (above). This phrase was a collaboration that took years and multiple authors, namely Andy Fredericks, Bill Carey, Josh Materi, and Tommy Hofland. To me this signifies the importance competence, and it's ever-present sidekicks - sweat and training.

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

Training to Fail, Part 2

   First of all, a quick correction to Training to Fail, Part 1; it appears I was wrong about Peyton Manning studying his enemy in preparation for the Super Bowl. I apologize, from now on I will do my due diligence...just kidding Bronco fans.

        This short little blog is not meant to cure the fire service of the problems of training to fail, but to merely identify a problem, attempt to define it, and give a handful of ideas that seem to work for me in trying to contain this plague. I could list dozens of buzzwords that frame the context of quality training (i.e. relevant, realistic, repeatable, frequent, high-fidelity, stress inoculation, flipped-training, etc), but that would require books, and that isn't the purpose of this blog.

        In Part 1, we defined training to fail and touched on the dangers that it can cause on the fireground. We left off stating that the sad truth is that almost all training can lead to misunderstanding and misapplication. So how then can we best prepare our members to excel? Well, unfortunately, it's not a simple, one-step solution...but it's definitely possible. Not surprisingly, the responsibility rests with the Training Division and the instructors.

        The goal of all trainings should be to leave members with increased knowledge, skills, and/or abilities (KSA), with crews seeing, thinking, and acting as one on the fireground (and all scene). We should strive to impart passion and give members the tools necessary to become great at their jobs. We need to focus our efforts to make the time we have for training as productive as possible. To that end, when developing a class, some things that must be considered are:

        The first step is to select and train qualified/knowledgeable/passionate instructors that are willing to put in the necessary time to prepare the members to the level which they, and the shareholders deserve. Obviously, right? You'd think so. For too long, in too many departments, the Training Division has been the island of the ignorant, indifferent and infirmed. Nothing has as big of an impact on a topic, a class, or even a department as a great instructor. Think about the best classes that you've ever taken, I'd put money that these were some of the best instructors you've seen too...coincidence?

        The Training Division must perform a needs assessment (speaking of buzzwords) and decide what information and skills your department needs (i.e. SFD fire response). Ask the department members for their input too, after all they are the boots on the ground and must be respected and listened to. I'm sure there will be no shortage of topics that get bought up, so utilize this information to the best of your ability. Much like a fireground size-up, a needs assessment should be done continually; because just like a fireground, your department and community are dynamic and constantly evolving. Once your initial needs assessment is complete, focus on what specific objectives  (stretching and advancing a primary attack line, search, VEIS, etc) you want to achieve, and cognitively/purposefully design your training to meet your intended objectives. This step is too easy to overlook, so don't pencil whip this, it's hugely important. How can you be a great department if you don't look at what you need and adapt accordingly?

        No matter how clear and succinct you may think part of your class is, some are undoubtedly going to get confused and will need further clarification. Understand and accept this fact. Don't get frustrated...plan for it. You may have to repeat the main message(s) multiple times, and in different ways, because people learn differently and will hear it differently. Again, don't get frustrated; just keep trying until they get it. By deconstructing your lessons and focusing on the "why" (and also the "who", "what", "when", "where" and "how") you will anticipate where the program will stall, and like Gordon Graham so famously states, "predictable is preventable".

        Every instructor must be open and honest with students. If you don't know an answer to a question, don't pretend that you do. Just tell the class the truth and then follow up with them after you find the answer. It takes someone about 10 seconds to fact-check you with their phone. In a sentence you can lose the students...and your credibility. Along the same line, define the context and limitations of your class prior to training. No training is perfect, and nothing occurs in a vacuum, so make sure that you understand and communicate these to the students. Since we are all limited in the time and resources that we have for training, give the members some ideas and resources to further their development (UL FSRIFire EngineeringFire Training ToolboxNIOSH, etc).

        Get as much feedback on your classes as you can. Watch your game film together. Record your classes, drills and working jobs and watch them together as the Training Division to see how you can improve. Honesty is important here, remember that we're all adults and should be able to handle constructive criticism. Oftentimes it's difficult to see our shortcomings as instructors, so watching ourselves can be a great tool to improve our delivery and our content. This is the Training Divisions version of checks and balances. This step is not done enough, but it can be invaluable to your development and your department.

        Make it fun. Too obvious? I know, but if you tell your brothers and sisters that you have training today, what's the first syllable out of their mouths? If it's "Uhhh!" then we have some work to do. Well then how do we make "work", fun? The following are a couple of quick items that have worked for me. Try to add an element of competition into training. As a collective, we're all hyper-competitive, so let's use this to help motivate each other. If we're training on stretching and advancing lines, VEIS, forcible entry, etc, then at the end of the training have a little competition. There is no faster way to have crews focus than to tell them they are going head-to-head against their brothers and sisters. Also, not all trainings have to last eight hours. Sometimes the most effective training can be done in 30 minutes on the apparatus floor...and no one can bitch about a 30-minute drill. Another undeniable point is to have fun while you're instructing, because just like yawning and monkeypox, fun is contagious. The opposite also holds true, the fastest way to turn off a classroom full of firefighters is for the instructor to be miserable being there. Lastly, incorporate technology into your training. Seriously, it's 2014. I don't want to repeat myself at all, so for more on this, check out Firefighter Renaissance.

        The Training Division must understand and accept the huge honor and responsibility they have been given, and take training is important! Understand and accept that this is a (career) long process and change won't happen overnight, so view everything through this prism. This is the job that we all chose, and we took an oath to do it well, so why not be great at it and help our brothers and sisters become great as well? Now let's go get sweaty.

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Training to Fail (Part 1)

Training to Fail 

If you’ve read any of my other pieces you’ve undoubtedly heard me on my soapbox, I’ve repeated myself over and over again: “Train more!” I’ve said this so many times it's become my mantra, and pretty much everything I’ve ever written on here follows that simple theme, but there’s more to training than just checking boxes and going through the motions. I've preached about the benefits of training and the dangers of failing to train, but training to fail can be just as disastrous.

Training to fail is a complex topic, but it can be grossly simplified to mean any training that isn’t clear in its message, delivery or receipt. Because training to fail is ubiquitous, it's one of the biggest obstacles that the fire service faces. Even though it's not overtly listed in the NIOSH 5, if you read between the lines, you can see that it permeates all of them. Training to fail can cause numerous problems, including: apathy, scarring, creating confusion, perpetuating misinformation, reinforcing bad habits or improper techniques, and inspiring false confidence...which on the fireground will translate  to limited situational awareness, poor performance, inappropriate decision-making…and ultimately, increased risks to shareholders and firefighters. 

What the hell was that? It looks stupid and we can laugh when it's others doing this, but we do it every day, in a million different ways, and we don't think twice about it. Seriously, wedo this too…a lot! Although in our defense, we don't realize it...but that's the problem, and that's why this happens daily in nearly every department. I know what you’re thinking…BS, we’ve never done that here. Alright, humor me for a minute, let’s see if this sounds familiar to anyone: was anyone taught the “what” and “how” of ventilation, but left confused as to the “when”, “where” and “why” of ventilation? If you don't believe me, spend five minutes on YouTube. 

Not convinced, what if I told you that most of us are only required to study fire behavior for three hours…throughout our entire career! That’s setting us up for failure. Instead we spend our limited training time watching OSHA videos or refreshing ourselves on HR's flavor of the day. Learning fire behavior is vital to the fire service. Literally. It’s the fire service equivalent of studying our enemy. To paraphrase the great Tom Brennan, you can never learn enough about something that can kill you. I guarantee Peyton Manning has spent more than three hours dissecting the Seahawks defense!…today!...before noon!...and he’s not done yet!...and that’s for a football game! 

I think the most obvious example of training to fail is 1403 burns. Calm down; hear me out. 1403 burns can be great training, but too often they aren’t. 1403 fires are fuel-limited and therefore limited in their scope (something that we repeatedly fail to adequately explain to the class). They’re unrealistic and a poor substitute for us, but the reality is that as of now, that’s what we’ve got. The limitations of 1403 burns are lengthy and well documented, and beyond the scope of this piece. Aaron Fields sums it up well, “we go into training burns for the fire, but on the fireground we go in for the people.” That last sentence may seem benign, but it is deeply telling of how pervasive this problem is. Hell, the reason that 1403 is written the way it is today, is because of our long history of training to fail. Meaning that it’s so restrictive because we've messed up too many times, and injured, and even killed brothers due to poor training.  

“A little knowledge, in the wrong hands, is a dangerous thing!” – T. Brennan 

There are infinite other examples of training to fail, but I’ll just list a handful that have been eating away at me lately:  

Have you sat through the exact same class over, and over, and over again for more than a dozen years? Ever fallen asleep in class? Have you ever heard an instructor spout misinformation or demonstrate improper technique? Have you left a class and had a completely different take-away than the rest of your crew? Ever asked “why” in a class and gotten the response back, “’cause that’s how we do it here” or “because I said so”? Have you ever taught a subject that you weren’t comfortable or qualified to teach? I could go on, but I think you get the point.

I already know the answers to the above questions. But why are so many of us answering these questions the same? Again, there are numerous reasons why, so I'll just hit the Cliffs Notes of why we habitually train to fail:

·       Time Constraints/Mismanagement
·        Perceived “Safety” 
·       Poor Instructors
·       Money 
·       Logistical Concerns
·       Laziness

The sad truth is that almost all training can lead to misunderstanding and misapplication. So how then can we best prepare our members to excel? For that answer, stay tuned for Training to Fail, Part 2. Now let's go get sweaty.

Thursday, January 9, 2014

Contaminate Your Crew

CDC Current Intelligence Bulletin 67: Fire Service Epidemic
        There's an epidemic in the American fire service, and terrifyingly little is known about it. Some estimate that as many as 1% of your brothers and sisters might already be infected, while others claim that number is as high as 10%, although evidence is clearly showing that the incidence rate is rising. If you're reading this, there's a good chance that you're already infected; and since this disease is highly contagious, there's also a good chance that you've unknowingly infected numerous others.

        The hallmarks of this disease include: an insatiable appetite for knowledge and constant focus on your craft. Other symptoms include relentless drilling, training, reading, sweating and questioning, leading to increased proficiency on the fireground. The CDC has developed a quick, three question diagnostic test (highly reliable and valid) that one can use to determine if they're infected.
                        1.  Can we push fire with a hoseline?
                        2.  Is your pimp hand loose?
                        3.  When out with your significant other, do you often find yourself sizing-up doors and buildings?
                       -  If you answered No, Yes and Always, respectively...then you're most likely contaminated.
        The etiology of this disease is unknown, but there is a strong causal link between great mentors and infected individuals. Many claim that this disease has been around for generations, while others claim centuries. There are numerous accusations (although scientifically unfounded) reporting Franklin, Layman or Fredericks as the fire service's "Typhoid Mary"; although no one knows whom the original host was. An unnamed source even went as far as stating that he has evidence that FDIC is an orgy of infestation, and that The Godfather (Chief Halton) is not only aware of this, but that he has been proactively working to make this a global pandemic. Recently, cases of this disease have even been found as far away as England, Sweden, India and Chile.
        Predictably, like seemingly everything else about this disease, the route of transmission is not fully understood, but anecdotal evidence suggests that it's spread through copious amounts of sweat. At this time, the long-term prognosis for this disease is unknown. There is no known cure, and the CDC is advising palliative care and symptom management, to include: reading articles and books, training, going to conferences and going to working fires.

        If you, or someone you know may be infected, contact the CDC and your PCP immediately.

Firefighter Rennaissance

        We are living in an incredible time in the fire service; the fact that our knowledge of the fireground is evolving at an unparalleled rate, combined with the fact that at no other point in history has information been shared as fast and freely as it is today, this truly is the Firefighter Renaissance. Twenty years ago (pre-digital big bang and infinite internet), I remember searching for hours, even days for the answer to a given question. I would first look in a dictionary, then ask my friends/parents/brothers/teachers and then I'd go to the library before either finding the answer I was looking for, or giving up, annoyed and unsatisfied. How ridiculous does that last sentence look to you today? With so much information, literally at our fingertips, one needs to only take seconds to find accurate, relevant material on any fire service topic. This free trade of information, in a lot of respects makes our job easier than ever before...but it also means that there is now no excuse for ignorance.
        I know that I'm preaching to the choir here, but with the importance of competence in our profession (a mistake could directly mean the loss of a life: a civilian's, a crew member's or even your own), coupled with the fact that we are living in the information revolution, in 2013 each company should now have a zero tolerance policy on ignorance. The purpose of this article is to highlight the greatest training tool the fire service has ever seen...the computer.

        I know this is heresy to many, so let me just clarify the above thought. Reading an article or watching a video on fire attack will obviously not lead to mastery of that skill (our bills are still paid in sweat equity), but it's a start. And I hope this goes without saying, but you must make sure that what you see and hear online is credible and works for your crew, your staffing, your equipment, your community, etc, etc. Now that I have offered my disclaimer, let's examine the near infinite number of opportunities one has for learning in 2013 and beyond.
        First and foremost, as I alluded to in my last post ("The Holy Grail of Fire Attack") the scientific study of the fireground that has, and is, being done by UL, NIST, ISFSI, NYU-POLY, KTF and numerous other acronyms and initialisms is changing how we attack fire and affect rescues of unprotected civilians. Not only is the information that we are learning changing how we operate, but they are digitally spoon-feeding it to us (online, interactive learning modules)...and it's delicious.
        Secondly, let's not forget about the true opiate of the masses: Facebook. I'm willing to bet that almost every one of you reading this has already been on Facebook today, and that's not necessarily a bad thing. Facebook is an extremely powerful tool and is the easiest way to communicate with, and ask questions of brothers from around the globe. I have had hundreds of conversations with firefighters much smarter and much more experienced than myself. So now, if I have a question about fire attack, instead of waiting until the game is over to ask the senior guy on my crew, I can ask Chief John Salka, Lt. Brian Brush or Aaron Fields...and I don't even have to wait until the game is over.

        Next up, YouTube. Many of us, including myself, respond to less than a dozen working fires a year. How then are we supposed to get our reps and sets at reading smoke, giving arrival reports, practicing our continual size-ups, etc? YouTube. We can watch 5-10 fires an hour...from the POV of the IC, the pipeman or the OVM...any time of the day...anywhere you get a signal...even in your "office". Could this be any more convenient? Hell, later today I will probably be watching one of you working a job that hasn't even happened yet.
        Lastly, in 2013, apps are ubiquitous. They are designed to make our lives easier and they can pretty much do anything. Want to listen to your district's radio while you're at home...check; need help figuring out friction loss...done; wish you could get help with your upcoming promotional interview...yep: drug calculations, knots, ERG...I think you know the answer. 
        I think I've made my point, but here are a couple more great resources to explore:
        * Podcasts - new show nearly every night on Fire Engineering Blog Talk Radio
        * Webcasts - can listen to the best of the best present...even while you're at home in your underwear
        * Simulations - great way to make sure your crew is all on the same page
        * Fire modeling - if you haven't before, you need to check this out
        * NIOSH LODD reports - RFB...honor them by learning from them
        * National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System - let's not make the same mistakes twice
        * Blogs - there are some amazing firefighters and writers out there
        Some resources that are a little more low-tech, but have stood the test of time:
        * Books, magazines and DVDs to fill your library
        * Conferences and classes are everywhere if you know where to look
        In the past twenty years of so, education and the fireground have made an huge evolutionary leap forward. To truly be students of the fire service we must embrace technology in the age of the information revolution. Information is everywhere, to not look is to be blind. So the next time that you're having trouble trying to figure out what to do for drill later on, just turn on your computer/tablet/phone and something is sure to spark your interest...then go get sweaty.
     I know that there are a ton of other resources that I left let's hear them; comment below with your favorite tools, programs, sites, etc.

The Holy Grail of Fire Attack?

        With all the recent fire studies conducted by UL, NIST, ISFSI, etc. the fire service is undergoing a renaissance...or at least that's what I thought. The aforementioned organizations have pumped out volumes of empirical data that we can consume and digest to make our profession smarter, more effective and most importantly, safer. Although over the past couple of months I have heard too many people spout misinformation regarding the findings of these studies. Specifically, I have had conversations with more than a couple firefighters that feel that there is now no need to ho interior anymore; that in all circumstances we should fight fire from the exterior. What these ill-informed firefighters spout as law is that we can't push 'fire', and exterior streams cool the entire box, regardless of stream origin (front yard, down the hall, fire room, etc.) so they then fill in the blanks of their logic (this is much easier than thinking) to conclude that we should always fight from outside the box. They have found the Holy Grail of fire attack.

Let's be very clear here...if you have been paying attention to these studies, you have undoubtedly heard these organizations (the Mythbusters of the fire service) make it a point to clarify that exterior fire attack is not right for every situation, nor every fire...simply they are proving that it is an effective tactic that has advantages in certain situations. With that being said, some of us aren't really listening.

        These studies (specifically UL's Horizontal VentilationUL's Vertical Ventilation and UL/NIST/FDNY's Governor's Island) and their findings are meant to give us more information and to make us better at our craft, not to be dumbed-down into blanket statements and sweeping SOGs that don't have our shareholders best interest in mind. The truth is that the fireground is not black and white, so critical thinking is still a necessity in our profession. These studies have validated exterior fire attack (aka transitional attack, softening the target, OEO, hitting it hard from the yard, giving it 10 seconds for safety, etc, etc.) as a crucial, effective tactic for the fireground, although some of the methodolgies of these studies have left room for interpretaion. So let's look at these studies with a more critical eye. 

        No one can deny that the scientific study of the modern fireground is inherently great for the fire service; as GI Joe always said "Knowing is half the battle!". With scientific studies comes the obligation to follow the scientific method, which, like everything else in the world has its pros and cons. The most obvious intrinsic con of following the scientific method is that for each test one does, only one variable can be manipulated; and since building houses and buying various equipment/cameras/probes/etc. for the sole purpose of then burning everything isn't cheap, this leads to small sample sizes with a resultant small number of variables studies. The next most obvious 'con' to conducting a fire study in the litigious 21st century, is that we are severly limited with regards to putting our fellow brothers and sisters in any real harms ways, so interior operations are accordingly limited. Therefore, to no fault of these organizations, some of the limitations of the methodologies were: small sample size, no or delayed interior operations (no search, no rescue, no or delayed interior attack, etc.), they do not measure humidity (we don't fully understant the affects of wet vs. dry heat on the human respiratory tract), they don't fully address pushing cooled products of combustion (only reading O2, CO and CO2), nearly all of the fires were contents fires, limited interior floor plans were studied and most of the studies (Horizontal and Vertical Ventilation) were done in a "sterile" environment lacking wind and rain.

        Now that we understand some of the context and limitations of these studies and realize that nothing on the fireground is black or white, we must then agree that we haven't found the Grand Unified Theory of firefighting...and that it probably doesn't exist. It seems as though many of us are trying to, as Chief Anthony (Andoni) Kastros so eloquently puts it: "safety ourselves out of a job." This can be a very slippery slope for firefighters as it can lead to complacency. Our job is inherently dangerous, period; and if one believes that there is now only one fireground tactic necessary for all fires, chances are they they will only drill and train on pulling a line to the front yard and applying water from outside. What happens to this firefighter when they arrive at a fire where the seat if out of the reach of an exterior stream? More importantly, what happens to the family trapped inside? Chances are that it won't go as smoothly as it could you see how hubris can lead to a slippery, dangerous slope?

        To be good at our job, we must be tacticians. Make sure that you recognize that exterior fire attack is a valid tactic in many circumstances, understand it's proper use, its limitations, drill on it and add it to your repertoire...but realize that you took an oath to protect the unprotected, and that means that you must also be prepared to go interior.

        Now let's go get sweaty.